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Opinion from Mediescapes India ?.
1. Write to us your country / city name from where you are seeking medical opinion with your full contact details.

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4. Send us recent X-Ray's / CT Scan / MRI Scan's / Echocardiogram / Angiogram / Pathological Reports or a summery of observations on them.
“I found out that I needed an operation for a back problem which was causing severe pain to my left leg from the sciatic nerve. After speaking to my GP and realizing I was getting nowhere I decided to take the matter into my own hands as I could hardly walk. After speaking to private consultants and realizing that without private medical insurance I was not going to be seen to in this country without shelling out around £20,000 I decided to look elsewhere. I decided to look into having the operation privately in India and was fortunate to come across Mediescapes India. From my initial enquiry when I e-mailed my MRI results to Mediescapes India I was amazed ..more.”
- A Patient from UK

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ENT Consultants in India
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Mediescapes India could arrange the following low cost medical procedures for you.

ENT Procedures routinely done in India

- Stapedectomy
- Thmpanoplasty
- Ossiculoplasty
- Micro Laryngeal Surgery
- Laryngectomy
- Block dissections of the neck, Endolymphatic Sac
- Cochlear Implants
- Microsurgery of ear for Deafness, Dizziness, Discharging ear and Facial
- Computer aided Audiometry and Tympanometry
- Infant Screening for early detection of deafness
- B.E.R.A./O.A.E./S.S.E.P./M.A.S.T.E.R.
- Digital hearing aid
- Micro debrider
-  Sleep Lab
- Video endoscopy
- Speech-Language Therapy India
P.S.: If the procedure you require is not listed here or if you require further information's then please send medical records with doctors diagnosis reports to and we assure you that we will quickly get back to you.

Dr. Mohan Kameswaran
, MS, FRCS, FICS, MAMS, DLO, is a leading ENT surgeon in India. He graduated from Madras Medical College, Chennai, being a gold medalist in his undergraduate and postgraduate days. He got his M.S. from Madras Medical College, Chennai and his fellowship at the Royal College of surgeons, Edinburgh.

Along with general ENT surgical work, he focused his interests in Cochlear Implants, Laser Surgery, Endoscopic Sinus surgery and Skull Base surgery. He is a pioneer in cochlear implant surgery and has the distinction of doing the 1st CONTOUR Cochlear Implant in the country.

He was also the first to introduce the KTP/532 laser in ENT surgery in India, this being the most advanced laser in the world. His surgical proficiency has made him an outstanding surgeon in skull base surgery.

He has more than 50 publications in major international journals. He is an outstanding teacher and has been duly recognized by the Royal College of Surgeons for which he is an overseas tutor. He was a much acclaimed teacher when he worked as a professor of ENT in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

He has also conducted several workshops for the benefit of the Post Graduates students in ENT which included advanced techniques in ENT surgery. He also has to his credit authored a textbook in ENT surgery.

Padmashri Prof. Dr. S. Kameswaran, PhD, DSc, FRCS (Ed & G), FICS, DLO., is one of the senior most ENT surgeons in India. Most of the present generation ENT surgeons owe their training to him. This year he completes 50 years of ENT practice.

Having obtained his MS & DLO he went to the U.K. to obtain his FRCS from the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Glasgow. As a keen teacher and guide he held many an academic post and has the honour of developing the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology in Madras Medical College where he was the longest serving Director.

He also has the distinction of being the first Ph.D holder in ENT in India and also received a Doctorate of Science (DSc) Honours Causa given by the Dr. MGR Medical University in recognition of his long years of research and original contributions. Nationally he was awarded the Padmashri by the Government of India and also received the B.C. Roy award for his contribution to his speciality.

He is the Honorary surgeon to the President of India. He was the past President of Association of Otolaryngologists of India. Internationally he has been recognized by many scientific bodies. He is a fellow of the Belgium Academy of Sciences. He has authored 2 textbooks in ENT and contributed chapters in other international textbooks.

Dr. P.G. Visvanathan M.S., D.L.O., F.R.A.C.S., F.I.C.S.
Team leader Dr.P.G.Visvanathan is among the surgeons who have performed the world’s largest series of operations for deafness caused by ostosclerosis. He introduced a technique known as small-fenestra stapedotomy for the first time in India. Another major break-through in ear surgery is the standardised results of gold and titanium prosthesis treatment to replace the hearing bones, even in failed cases. Minimally invasive cochlear implant surgery was also brought to India by him. Dr.P.G.Visvanathan is invited all over India and abroad to demonstrate live surgery and deliver guest lectures by institutions. He is also the President and founder member of the Indian Society of Otology.

Dr. Aruna Visvanathan M.B.,M.S.,F.A.G.E.&
Dr. Anjana Visvanathan M.B.,M.S.,F.A.G.E.
Having fulfilled fellowships in Cochlear implant, otology, voice alteration, endoscopic sinus and laser surgery from Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Denmark, France and USA are experts in these areas of specialisation. They also head innovative research on

Common FAQ's

Q. What is a Cochlear Implant ?
A. A cochlear implant (Bionic Ear) is an artificial hearing device, designed to produce useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear. The Bionic Ear was pioneered in 1978 by Professor Graeme Clark and his team. The present day multi-channel cochlear implants consist of 2 main components:
1) the cochlear implant package and electrode array (or receiver-stimulator) and
2) the speech processor and headset.

Q. Cochlear Implant Benefits?
A. Implants are designed only for individuals who attain almost no benefit from a hearing aid. They must be 12 months of age or older (unless childhood meningitis is responsible for deafness). Otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat specialists) perform implant surgery, though not all of them do this procedure. Your local doctor can refer you to an implant clinic for an evaluation. The evaluation will be done by an implant team (an otolaryngologist, audiologist, nurse, and others) that will give you a series of tests: Ear (otologic) evaluation: The otolaryngologist examines the middle and inner ear to ensure that no active infection or other abnormality precludes the implant surgery. Hearing (audiologic) evaluation: The audiologist performs an extensive hearing test to find out how much you can hear with and without a hearing aid. X-ray (radiographic) evaluation: Special X-rays are taken, usually computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, to evaluate your inner ear bone. Psychological evaluation: Some patients may need a psychological evaluation to learn if they can cope with the implant. Physical examination: Your otolaryngologist also gives a physical examination to identify any potential problems with the general anesthesia needed for the implant procedure.

Q. Cochlear Surgery?
A. Implant surgery is performed under general anesthesia and lasts two to three hours. An incision is made behind the ear to open the mastoid bone leading to the middle ear. The procedure usually requires a stay in hospital for 2-3 days, depending on the device used and the anatomy of the inner ear.

Q. Is There Care And Training After The Operation?
A. About one month after surgery, your team places the signal processor, microphone, and implant transmitter outside your ear and adjusts them. They teach you how to look after the system and how to listen to sound through the implant. Some implants take longer to fit and require more training. Your team will probably ask you to come back to the clinic for regular checkups and readjustment of the speech processor as needed.

Q. What Can I Expect from An Implant?
A. Cochlear implants do not restore normal hearing, and benefits vary from one individual to another. Most users find that cochlear implants help them communicate better through improved lipreading, and over half are able to discriminate speech without the use of visual cues. There are many factors that contribute to the degree of benefit a user receives from a cochlear implant, including: how long a person has been deaf, the number of surviving auditory nerve fibers, and a patient’s motivation to learn to hear. Your team will explain what you can reasonably expect. Before deciding whether your implant is working well, you need to understand clearly how much time you must commit. A few patients do not benefit from implants.

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Q. What do we mean by “sinus”?
A. A sinus is an air space in the hollow bones of the face. The sinuses contain air and communicate with the nose.

Q. What is sinusitis?
A. It is an inflammation of the membrane lining of the paranasal sinuses. In acute sinusitis, facial pain/pressure, nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, diminished sense of smell, fever and cough may occur. It is generally treated with antibiotics and decongestants. In chronic sinusitis, facial pain/pressure, facial congestion/ fullness, nasal obstruction, nasal/ postnasal discharge, diminished sense of smell, fever, headache, bad breath and cough may be present. The symptoms are usually present for 12 weeks or more.

Q. What are the diagnostic tests for chronic sinusitis?
A. X-ray / CT scan of the paranasal sinuses, diagnostic nasal endoscopy, allergy testing and blood tests may be required.

Q. What is diagnostic nasal endoscopy?
A. An endoscope is an instrument for the examination of the nose and sinus drainage areas. The patient’s nasal cavity is anesthetized with a local anesthetic and diagnostic nasal endoscopy is done. Signs of obstruction, nasal polyps hidden from routine nasal examination are visualized. Structural abnormalities that cause recurrent sinusitis are identified.

Q. What is the course of treatment for sinusitis?
A. Nasal spray / nose drops, decongestants, antibiotics in patients with bacterial infection, antihistamines for treatment of nasal allergies are usually prescribed. Patients are advised to refrain from smoking.

Q. When is sinus surgery necessary?
A. Mucus is formed in the nose and acts as a lubricant. In the sinus cavities this lubricant is moved across mucous membrane linings towards the opening of each sinus by millions of cilia (mobile extensions of a cell). Inflammation from allergy causes membrane swelling and the sinus opening to narrow, thereby blocking sinus movement. Endoscopic sinus surgery may be required to correct this problem. The natural opening of the sinuses is enlarged and areas of obstruction are removed to allow the normal flow of mucus. This procedure is highly effective in restoring the normal function of the sinuses.

Q. What does the surgical procedure entail?
A. The basic endoscopic surgical procedure is performed under general / local anesthesia. The patient returns to normal activities within four days and full recovery takes about 4 weeks.

Q. What are the consequences of not treating infected sinuses?
A. Not seeking treatment of sinusitis leads to pain and discomfort. In rare circumstances, meningitis, brain abscess, loss of vision, infection of the bone, etc may occur.

Q. What is snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS)?
A. Snoring is a social problem and may be associated with significant sleep disturbances, waking episodes etc. Individuals who snore may also be suffering from OSAS. OSAS is characterized by significant and prolonged interruptions of breathing (airway obstruction) during sleep. These episodes of cessation of breathing may be associated with substantial decrease in blood oxygen levels, irregularities in the heart’s normal beating pattern (cardiac arrythmias), high blood pressure, and even sudden death. OSAS is a serious disorder. Symptoms of sleep apnoea include excessive day time tiredness / sleepiness, a feeling of dullness or napping during work hours, falling asleep while driving, headaches etc.

Q. What are the investigations for sleep apnoea?
A. The main investigation required is a polysomnogram (sleep study) which is an overnight test usually performed in a sleep laboratory where one simply falls asleep for a number of hours. During this sleeping time, important processes including ECG, blood oxygen levels, number and duration of apnoeic spells are monitored. A sleep MRI is also essential to identify the level of obstruction.

Q. What is the treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome?
A. The treatment can be nonsurgical (weight loss, CPAP etc) or surgical (e.g. LAUP). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) - pressurized air is administered by way of a face mask which is worn during sleep. This maintains adequate pressure to overcome airway obstruction. In Laser assisted uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (LAUP), a laser beam is utilized to reduce the redundant tissue in the back of the throat.

Q. What is cholesteatoma?
A. A cholesteatoma is a serious infection which affects the ear. The skin of the ear drum grows into the middle ear and becomes a cholesteatoma. This looks like an onion peel of white skin formed into a ball. It can destroy the bones of hearing as it grows. Symptoms include hearing loss, recurring ear discharge which may be foul smelling. It tends to actively erode bone and may cause nerve deafness, imbalance and dizziness. The thin plate of bone that separates the roof of the ear from the brain can also be eroded by cholesteatoma. This exposes the covering of the brain. In extreme situations, it can lead to brain infection and other serious complications. Cholesteatoma is a serious condition and when diagnosed requires prompt treatment. Polyps (growth of inflamed tissue) are often present in the ear with cholesteatoma. The treatment required for cholesteatoma is micro ear surgery.

Q. What is micro ear surgery?
A. Structures of the ear are very small. The surgery is usually performed with an operating microscope which enlarges the view of the ear structures sufficiently so the surgeon can perform the delicate tasks needed. The incision is made behind or in front of the ear. The wall separating the middle ear from the mastoid (bone behind the ear) is removed. Disease clearance is done. Hearing reconstruction is then done. The surgery results in a so called open cavity which requires long term follow-up.

Q. Head and neck cancers?
A. Head and neck cancers actually include many different malignancies. The way a particular cancer behaves depends on the site it arises (primary site). The main parts of the head and neck include oral cavity, oropharynx, nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, hypopharynx, larynx, thyroid and salivary gland. Most common types of cancers in the head and neck is squamous cell carcinoma, the others being lymphoma, sarcoma, salivary gland tumours etc. Typical symptoms include a lump or sore that does not heal, a sore throat that does not go away, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, and a change or hoarseness in the voice. Diagnosis of head and neck cancers is by a complete physical examination, CT/MRI scan, endoscopy and tissue biopsy. The three main types of treatment for head and cancers are surgery, radiotherapy (high energy X-ray to kill cancer cells) and chemotherapy (anti-cancer drugs). Surgical treatment consists of removal of cancer and some of the healthy tissue around it. Lymph nodes in the neck may also be removed. Optimal combination of the three treatment modalities for a patient with a particular head and neck cancer depends on the site of the cancer, extent of the disease and medical condition of the patient. Rehabilitation and regular follow-up care are important part of the treatment.

Q. What is Phonosurgery?
A. It is a surgical procedure that maintains, restores or enhances the human voice. Phonosurgery includes phonomicrosurgery (microsurgery of the vocal folds done through an endoscope), laryngoplastic phonosurgery (open neck surgery that restructures the cartilaginous framework of the larynx - voice box), soft tissue laryngeal injection (injection into the larynx of medications as well as synthetic and organic biologic substances) and reinnervation (restoration of the nerve supply) of the larynx. Use of the microscope during laryngeal surgery enhances precision. The results of surgery are excellent but have to be followed up with voice rest, hygiene and rehabilitation to get good long-term results of voice improvement.

Q. Laser surgery in ENT
A. The laser has proved to be a valuable tool in ENT due to its precision, blood less dissection with minimal damage to surrounding tissues, and its ability to produce minimal postoperative edema, pain and scarring. The CO2 laser has been the workhorse of ENT surgery for many years. It is a good cutting tool but a poor coagulator. The KTP /532 laser cuts nerve endings smoothly, hence decreases postoperative pain. Its precision, with decreased damage to surrounding structures leads to decreased postoperative edema, pain and scarring. It is an ideal laser for ENT and Head and Neck surgery. In the ear, the laser can be used to treat disorders of the outer ear such as stenosis (narrowing) and benign tumors, removal of disease in the middle ear, stapedotomy (an operation done in patients with a fixed bone in the middle ear causing hearing loss). In the nose, the laser can be used to remove disease from the nose and sinuses, tumors, etc. In the throat, it has many applications such as tonsillectomy, LAUP (removal of redundant tissue in the back of the throat in patients with snoring and sleep apnoea), tumors – both benign and malignant, cysts, narrowing in the windpipe etc. With the introduction of lasers in ENT, a majority of ENT surgeries have become day care procedures.

Keyhole Surgeries of the Nose

Keyhole surgeries of the nose give us surgeons an excellent visualization of tissue to avoid any errors. The scope gives us an end to end, 3D view that helps us ensure a complete removal of the disease, leaving no chance for recurrence. 

Why Keyhole Surgery?
For one, there is no cutting wound. In conventional surgeries we cut through the nose or the inside of the upper lip. There is no ugly facial scar. Repeated surgery can be avoided and so can other life-threatening complications. As there is no incision you will not experience the blood loss of conventional surgery. Also there is no major trauma to the eyes. There is only minimal access to the brain, so major surgical stress is avoided. Recovery too takes place in a shorter period.

Surgeries of the Nose
Primary sinus surgery involves surgery for repeated sinusitis, nasal polyposis complications of sinusitis, headache and facial pain, fungal infection of sinuses, early detection of cancers and surgery for correction of CSF leak.

Breathe Easy – Bronchoscopy is here 

The Bronchoscope is an endoscope used to visualize the airway (windpipe). Bronchoscopy is mainly used for the diagnosis of suspected pulmonary infections like TB, pneumonia, lung abscess etc. Through Bronchoscopy, it is possible to obtain a sample from the exact side of the affected lung. By analyzing the sample the infection can be treated most effectively. 

Crucial for Diagnosis
Bronchoscopy is the primary diagnostic tool for patients with suspected lung cancer and those coughing out blood (haemoptysis). In cancer, biopsy of the lung, tissue can be extracted by this method, avoiding the need for opening the chest wall. Certain lung cancers affecting the airway can also be treated by laser therapy and brachytherapy using this method. 

Further Symptoms
Unexplained and prolonged cough, haemoptysis, change in character of cough, uncontrolled wheezing, may require Bronchoscopy to find the cause. Sometimes cancers, or a foreign body that may be the cause for the above symptoms, can be diagnosed and treated by this simple procedure, alone. Foreign bodies like a peanut, denture, chalk, etc, which have been aspirated into the airway can be removed without any surgical intervention. 

Outpatient Procedure
This procedure is being done as an outpatient method. No anaesthesia is required. It is pain free. Absolutely no incision is needed as the Bronchoscope is passed through the nose or mouth into the airway. The ease of access into the lung, direct visualization, flexibility simplicity of use which allows rapid examination even in restless/distressed patients, makes Bronchoscopy the procedure of choice in almost all kinds of lung diseases.

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